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Account Abstraction


Please note that this section is under active development.


Here you will find all the information required to refine the end-user experience and allow for seamless web2-like interactions with dApps and accounts on the Astar zkEVM.

Account Abstraction is a blockchain technology that enables users to utilize smart contracts as their accounts. While the default account for most users is an Externally Owned Account (EOA), which is controlled by an external private key, it requires users to have a considerable understanding of blockchain technology to use them securely. Fortunately, smart contract accounts can create superior user experiences.

Using Account Abstraction

There are two primary ways users can use account abstraction: with third party Meta Transaction services or by sending ERC-4337 transactions.

Meta Transactions

Meta Transactions are bespoke third party services for achieving account abstraction, for example:


ERC-4337, also known as EIP-4337.

📄️ Particle Network Smart Wallet-as-a-Service

Particle Network's Wallet Abstraction services enable universal, Web2-adjacent onboarding and interactions. Its core technology, Smart Wallet-as-a-Service (WaaS) aims to onboard users into MPC-secured smart accounts supporting any chain. It also allows developers to offer an improved user experience through modular, fully customizable EOA/AA embedded wallets. Particle supports its Smart Wallet-as-a-Service through a Modular L1 powering chain abstraction, acting as a settlement layer across chains for a seamless multi-chain experience.